Human-Machine Interfacing Enabled by Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Tribotronics


With the advances of artificial intelligence (AI), autonomous robotics, virtual reality (VR) and Internet of things (IoT), an intelligent and ubiquitous human-machine interfacing (HMI) ecosystem has become a desire and attracted lots of interests. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG), as a natural and effective mechanical-to-electrical signal conversion technology, have been successfully utilized to realize many types of HMI, including smart keyboards, body motion sensors, the electronic skin, voice sensors, the triboelectrification-induced electroluminescence, and the artificial muscle. Meanwhile, tribotronics, as the coupling field of TENG and semiconductors, has demonstrated the feasibility for tactile switch or sensing with the possibilities of high integration and large scale. The fundamental theory of TENG and tribotronics is revisited herein. In addition, the definition of HMI and, for the first time, the research progress of the TENG and tribotronics enabled HMI are systematically and thoroughly reviewed. Finally, the perspectives in this emerging field are also discussed.