Quantitative Prediction of Paravalvular Leak in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Based on Tissue-Mimicking 3D Printing


OBJECTIVES This study aimed to develop a procedure simulation platform for in vitro transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) using patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) printed tissue-mimicking phantoms. We investigated the feasibility of using these 3D printed phantoms to quantitatively predict the occurrence, severity, and location of any degree of post-TAVR paravalvular leaks (PVL). BACKGROUND We have previously shown that metamaterial 3D printing technique can be used to create patient-specific phantoms that mimic the mechanical properties of biological tissue. This may have applications in procedural planning for cardiovascular interventions. METHODS This retrospective study looked at 18 patients who underwent TAVR. Patient-specific aortic root phantoms were created using the tissue-mimicking 3D printing technique using pre-TAVR computed tomography. The CoreValve (self-expanding valve) prostheses were deployed in the phantoms to simulate the TAVR procedure, from which post-TAVR aortic root strain was quantified in vitro. A novel index, the annular bulge index, was measured to assess the post-TAVR annular strain unevenness in the phantoms. We tested the comparative predictive value of the bulge index and other known predictors of post-TAVR PVL. RESULTS The maximum annular bulge index was significantly different among patient subgroups that had no PVL, trace-to-mild PVL, and moderate-to-severe PVL (p - 0.001). Compared with other known PVL predictors, bulge index was the only significant predictor of moderate-severe PVL (area under the curve = 95%; p < 0.0001). Also, in 12 patients with post-TAVR PVL, the annular bulge index predicted the major PVL location in 9 patients (accuracy = 75%). CONCLUSIONS In this proof-of-concept study, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D printed tissue-mimicking phantoms to quantitatively assess the post-TAVR aortic root strain in vitro. A novel indicator of the post-TAVR annular strain unevenness, the annular bulge index, outperformed the other established variables and achieved a high level of accuracy in predicting post-TAVR PVL, in terms of its occurrence, severity, and location. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.